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20Khz Ultrasonic Dispersion of Graphene Nanoplatelets

Ultrasonic sonochemistry equipment applied in different liquid system such as homogenization, cell division, dispersion, degassing or extraction.
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  • RPS-SONO20
  • Rps-sonic
  • RPS-SONO20

20Khz Ultrasonic Dispersion of Graphene Nanoplatelets


Graphene has outstanding mechanical properties due to its unique structure, and is regarded as an ideal reinforcement of metal matrix composites. However, it is always in an agglomerate form due to its large specific surface area, and thus, it must be first dispersed prior to combining with a matrix, and ultrasonic treatment is considered to be the most effective way. In this work, the effects of parameters of tip ultrasonic treatment, such as ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power, solvent kind, and its temperature, on dispersion and structure of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were studied. The results show that increasing ultrasonic time or ultrasonic power can enhance the dispersion and exfoliation effects of GNPs, but also increase fragmentation degree and disorder degree of C-atom distribution simultaneously. Solvents with low temperature, low viscosity, or high surface tension have similar effects to those of increasing ultrasonic time or power. However, for tap water, a high-surface-tension solvent, it has relatively low fragmentation degree, and good dispersion and exfoliation effects due to the hydrophilicity of GNPs. However, ethyl alcohol is a more suitable solvent because it has excellent volatility and inert reaction characteristics with GNPs and matrix alloys besides a good dispersion effect. The GNPs can achieve the expected status when they are ultrasonically treated for 4 h under a power of 960 W in EA solvent at 35 °C.



Principle of Ultrasonic Graphene Dispersion
There are two types of ultrasonic equipment, tip and bath sonicator. The power of the tip sonicator is always higher than that of the bath one, and thus, the tip sonicator is much more efficient for dispersion than the bath sonicator under the same conditions . However, most investigations emphasize the microstructure and mechanical properties of the achieved graphene reinforced composites . As for the fabrication of the composites, especially for the dispersion of graphene, only a set of parameters was provided, and the detailed effects of the parameters such as the ultrasonic powder and time, the viscosity, surface tension and temperature of the solvents on the graphene dispersion, are still unclear. Therefore, the employed parameters in their investigation might not be the optimum, and the mechanical properties of the composites are unsatisfactory due to the resulting inhomogeneous distribution of graphene. Previous investigations indicated that ultrasonic treatment could disperse GNP agglomerates, but simultaneously lead them to fragmenting . The fragmentation not only reduces the aspect ratio of graphene and decreases its load transfer efficiency, and thus, impairs its strengthening role , but also increases C-atoms with dangling bonds at the edge of GNPs; such C-atoms always have high chemical activity and can easily react with matrix-alloying elements to form brittle carbides at the graphene/matrix interface , which also impairs the strengthening role of GNPs . In addition, some investigations have suggested that vacancies might form during ultrasonic treatment and the structure integrity of graphene was then destroyed, and thus the strengthening role was also decreased . Cheng et al. found that the ultrasonic dispersion of carbon nanotubes was dependent on the solvent physical properties such as vapor pressure, viscosity, and surface tension . Furthermore, solvent temperature rise is a common phenomenon during ultrasonic treatment, and the vapor pressure of a solvent has a close relationship with its temperature, i.e., the solvent temperature also can affect the dispersion of graphene. However, unfortunately, there are no investigations on these aspects.

 

Graphene dispersion purpose
There are a lot of graphite materials in nature, and graphite with a thickness of 1 mm contains about 3 million layers of graphene. Single-layer graphite is called graphene, which does not exist in the free state, and it exists in the form of graphite sheets laminated with multiple layers of graphene. Since the interlayer force of the graphite sheet is weak, it can be exfoliated layer by layer by external force, thereby obtaining a single-layer graphene with a thickness of only one carbon atom.

 





Parameter

Model

SONO20-1000

SONO20-2000

SONO15-3000

SONO20-3000

Frequency

20±0.5 KHz

20±0.5 KHz

15±0.5 KHz

20±0.5 KHz

Power

1000 W

2000 W

3000 W

3000 W

Voltage

220/110V

220/110V

220/110V

220/110V

Temperature

300 ℃

300 ℃

300 ℃

300 ℃

Pressure

35 MPa

35 MPa

35 MPa

35 MPa

Intensity of sound

20 W/cm²

40 W/cm²

60 W/cm²

60 W/cm²

Max Capacity

10 L/Min

15 L/Min

20 L/Min

20 L/Min

Tip Head Material

Titanium Alloy

Titanium Alloy

Titanium Alloy

Titanium Alloy


Ultrasonic nano dispersion

Ultrasonic Graphene production

                                                                          





Sonochemical reactions

Three classes of sonochemical reactions exist: homogeneous sonochemistry of liquids, heterogeneous sonochemistry of liquid-liquid or solid–liquid systems, and, overlapping with the aforementioned, sonocatalysis (the catalysis or increasing the rate of a chemical reaction with ultrasound). Sonoluminescence is a consequence of the same cavitation phenomena that is responsible for homogeneous sonochemistry. The chemical enhancement of reactions by ultrasound has been explored and has beneficial applications in mixed phase synthesis, materials chemistry, and biomedical uses. Because cavitation can only occur in liquids, chemical reactions are not seen in the ultrasonic irradiation of solids or solid–gas systems.

For example, in chemical kinetics, it has been observed that ultrasound can greatly enhance chemical reactivity in a number of systems by as much as a million-fold;[16] effectively acting to activate heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, in reactions at liquid-solid interfaces, ultrasound breaks up the solid pieces and exposes active clean surfaces through microjet pitting from cavitation near the surfaces and from fragmentation of solids by cavitation collapse nearby. This gives the solid reactant a larger surface area of active surfaces for the reaction to proceed over, increasing the observed rate of reaction. 

While the application of ultrasound often generates mixtures of products, a paper published in 2007 in the journal Nature described the use of ultrasound to selectively affect a certain cyclobutane ring-opening reaction. Atul Kumar has reported multicomponent reaction Hantzsch ester synthesis in Aqueous Micelles using ultrasound.

Some water pollutants, especially chlorinated organic compounds, can be destroyed sonochemically.

Sonochemistry can be performed by using a bath (usually used for ultrasonic cleaning) or with a high power probe, called an ultrasonic horn, which funnels and couples a piezoelectric element's energy int


See also

Ultrasound

Sonication

Ultrasonics

ultrasonic homogenizer

homogenizer

Homogenization (chemistry)

Sonoelectrochemistry

Kenneth S. Suslick


1. Can your sonochemistry horn be used in an acid (alkali) environment?

Under the acid (alkali) environment, the horn need to be customized according to the actual working conditions of customers.

 

2. Can the ultrasonic sonochemistry work continuously?

Yes , it can work 24hours continue.

 

3. What kind of material is the horn?

Titanium alloy, we also  customized ceramic horn for customer before.

 

4. What’s the time of delivery

 For Conventional horn, 3 days, for customized horn 7 work days.

 

5. Does ultrasonic extraction also require the addition of a chemical catalyst?

No , but some time need Mechanical stirring.

 

6. What’s the advantage of ultrasonic extraction?

Decline the extraction time, and increase the extraction ratio.

 

7. What’s the Processing capacity of one set ultrasonic extraction equipment?

Different horn different Processing capacity, for 2000W Nine-section whip horn can dealing 2L~10L/min.

 

8. Are you manufacturer?

We only manufacturer the transducer and generator our-self, for the horn , we design and buy raw material ,and process by other companies.

 

9. What’s the warranty of your sonochemistry equipment?

All equipment one year warranty.

 

10. Do you have Foreign agent?

No, our price already very low for everyone, no agent. We have OEM customer in USA and Germany.

 

11. Is it difficult to install the ultrasonic sonochemistry equipment?

No , it is easy , we will share Installation diagram, also can take install video for you.


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 Ms. Yvonne
  sales@xingultrasonic.com   
 0086-15658151051
   Room 1103B, Nature business building ,  NO.1160 GongWang Road ,FuYang, Hangzhou,Zhejiang,China

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