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What is Ultrasonic Compound Machining?

Views:28     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-09-11      Origin:Site

    Composite machining refers to the combination of two or more different types of energy at the same time on the processing site to process the workpiece materials. If one of the processing methods is ultrasonic processing, it is called ultrasonic composite processing. At present, the most widely used are ultrasonic EDM and ultrasonic electrochemical machining.


1. Ultrasonic-EDM Composite Machining

The electrode and workpiece are connected to DC (pulse) voltage, contacted with a certain micro-pressure, and the insulating working medium (e.g. absolute ethanol) containing micro-abrasive particles is added between them. The tool electrode is vibrated by ultrasonic frequency, which will generate pulsed spark discharge. There is a minimum gap △min between the electrode and the workpiece, which is about the diameter of a single abrasive particle. Because of the role of the minimum gap, short circuit discharge can be effectively avoided. When the gap between the electrode and the workpiece is less than Delta △max, micro-EDM is produced. In the gap of spark discharge, ultrasonic cavitation and pumping can effectively and timely remove electrolyte, accelerate working fluid circulation and improve the condition of gap discharge, so as to effectively avoid arc discharge, improve the effective pulse ratio, improve the processing accuracy and surface quality. This process is suitable for micro-structure processing of hard and tough metal materials. Using high frequency pulse power supply, the discharge frequency decreases, and the effect of ultrasonic is more obvious, which is more conducive to improving the processing accuracy and surface quality, but the efficiency decreases.

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2. Ultrasonic-Electrolysis Compound Machining

Ultrasonic electrolysis combined with microfabrication principle. Low voltage (1-5 V), low concentration passivation electrolyte (such as 5% NaNO3 aqueous solution), due to microcurrent electrolysis, electrolytic passivation film with very thin thickness and much lower strength on the workpiece surface can be produced, which can prevent low current density electrolysis. A kind of

After introducing ultrasonic frequency vibration and pulse current, the impact scraping, high frequency vibration shock wave and negative pressure cavitation of abrasive particles can effectively eliminate passive film, eliminate electrolytic products in gap area in time, improve and strengthen electrolysis, and make the processing process sustainable.

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Research on Application of Ultrasonic Composite Machining Technology 

1. Deep Small Hole Processing

As we all know, under the same requirements and processing conditions, the processing hole is much more complex than the processing axis. Generally speaking, the length of the hole processing tool is always larger than the diameter of the hole, which is prone to deformation under the action of cutting force, thus affecting the processing quality and efficiency. Especially for deep hole drilling of difficult-to-machine materials, there will be many problems. For example, it is difficult for cutting fluid to enter the cutting zone, resulting in high cutting temperature; the cutting edge wears fast, resulting in chip accumulation tumors, making chip removal difficult, cutting force increases, etc. As a result, the processing efficiency and accuracy are reduced, the surface roughness value is increased, and the tool life is short. Ultrasonic processing can effectively solve the above problems.

A new 4-axis EDM device combining ultrasonic and EDM was developed by introducing ultrasonic vibration into precision EDM of Ti alloy deep holes. The effect of ultrasonic vibration on EDM process was studied. The experimental results show that the device can process deep holes with a depth-diameter ratio of <0.2 mm and <15 on Ti alloy. 

2. Grinding and Polishing of Drawing Die and Cavity Die

Ultrasonic polishing technology of polycrystalline diamond drawing dies has been widely used at home and abroad, and new methods and equipment of Ultrasonic polishing have emerged. Beijing Institute of Electrical Machining (BEM) has put forward the method of EDM-ultrasonic composite polishing for superhard tool materials, which is characterized by the combination of ultrasonic frequency signal modulation high frequency EDM pulse power supply and ultrasonic machining for grinding and polishing of polycrystalline diamond drawing dies. The technology has been patented and applied in production.

3. Ultrasonic Machining of Difficult-to-Machining Materials

Hard and brittle metal and non-metal materials are used more and more widely, especially ceramics, which have the advantages of high hardness, wear resistance, high temperature resistance, good chemical stability, non-oxidation and corrosion resistance. However, due to the extremely high hardness and brittleness of difficult-to-machine materials such as engineering ceramics, it is very difficult to form, especially the processing of forming holes, which seriously hinders the application and promotion. A kind of

However, the introduction of ultrasonic vibration into the lapping of ordinary polycrystalline diamond (PCD) significantly improves the lapping efficiency. Based on the analysis of the microstructure and removal mechanism of PCD materials, the PCD ultrasonic vibration lapping machine is developed.


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